In addition to impairing the immune and vascular systems and triggering cerebrovascular and neurological dysfunction, smoking and vaping often worsen the outcomes for patients who contract influenza or other respiratory or pulmonary diseases.
Physicians and other medical professionals use pulse oximeters on patients experiencing shortness of breath or those who have a lung or heart conditions to determine if they're getting enough oxygen. Health care professionals routinely use them in hospitals and clinics when checking vital signs.
An emergency room Doctor explains how coronavirus effects the lungs. Most coronavirus patients don't report any sensation of breathing problems, because of a form of oxygen deprivation called "silent hypoxia". Most patients become short of breath the day they come to the hospital even though they have been sick for a week or more.
As the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 surges past 2.2 million globally and deaths surpass 150,000, clinicians and pathologists are struggling to understand the damage wrought by the coronavirus as it tears through the body. They are realizing that although the lungs are ground zero, its reach can extend to many organs including the heart and blood vessels, kidneys, gut, and brain.